人物春秋册

吴曾只是盱眙县三街(今安徽省明光市三街镇)人。 他因为《三国志》撰写了《三国郡县表》而被称为历史地理学大师。 清代中叶以来,在众多有关三国地理的专着中,最受历史学家推崇,普遍认为填补了《三国志》中“志”的空白。

 

大家都知道《三国志》是陈寿写的。 他们也知道,《三国志》虽然名为“志”,但实际上并没有地理记载。 也就是说,《三国志》只有记载和传记,而没有志向和表。 究其原因,中华书局对1959年在滇校出版《三国志》的解释认为,“陈寿所见史料有限”。 清代以来,不少学者尝试增补《三国志》,以弥补《三国志》的不足。 比较著名的是洪良吉(又名北疆)所著的《三国志补》。 后来谢仲英据此写了《三国志》。 《三国疆域志补记》,到了光绪二十年(1894年),盱眙人吴曾才开始撰写《三国郡县一览表》,光绪二十二年(1896年)出版。 被誉为“晚清第一人”的大学者杨守敬,在读了许多关于三国疆域的补记后,对它们不予理睬,甚至加以批评。 他只认可吴曾毅的《三国志》。 《三国郡县表》不仅对其予以赞扬,还为其作了补充注释。 光绪三十三年(1907年),关海棠将杨受政的《补记》与吴曾仪的《三国县县表》合并。 刊刻题为《修三国郡县表》。 民国二十五年(1937年),上海开明书店出版印刷版。 1982年,国务院古籍整理出版规划组组长李亦猛建议编印出版《杨守敬集》,并题写书名。 1988年,湖北人民出版社出版的《补充更正三国县县名录》被列入其中。

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杨守敬是中国近代历史地理学做出杰出贡献的大师。 其代表作《历代地理图》、《水经注》是在我国地理学发展史上占有重要地位的代表作。 后人将把他视为地理地理学最重要的人物之一。 他的成就与王念孙、段玉裁的小学、李善兰的算术并称清代“三绝”。

由于杨守敬名气太大,后人只知道杨守敬,而忽略了吴曾仪。 几年前,笔者因研究鲁肃出生地而接触到《修三国县郡名录》,才知道作者吴曾只是盱眙人。 客观地说,杨守敬的“修改”给《三国县县表》增添了不少色彩,但《三国县县表》的作者毕竟是吴曾植。 “纠错”之下,很多盱眙人不仅不认识吴曾植,也不知道吴曾植的《三国郡县表》。 基于此,笔者认为,有必要恢复吴曾智之名应有的地位,恢复历史的原貌。

1、吴曾唯一的一生

关于吴曾智的资料不多,后人通过他仅有的两篇传世文章来了解他。 一篇是《三国郡县》序,一篇是其叔父吴秉祥所作《一路石朝》诗跋。

从《三国县表》序言可知,吴曾只有克渊二字。 序中题词为“盱眙吴曾志”。

虽然吴曾只是在清末民初因为《三国县志》的出版才在史学界出名,而后又因杨守敬的宠幸而名声大噪,但似乎并没有掀起什么风波。盱眙并没有引起任何注意。 光绪的《盱眙县志稿》是唯一有记载的地方志。 这部年谱第八篇《公举》只记载了吴曾:国(清)“乙酉进贡四川后部县”,细目只有十个字。 根据吴曾在十九世纪末至二十世纪初的主要社会活动推算,可知这个“乙酉”是清朝光绪十一年,即公元1885年。 所以吴曾只是没有记载他进贡前的经历,进贡后的仕途,以及他何时、在什么情况下完成了《三国郡县》巨著,至今仍是后人的未解之谜。 神秘的面纱。

据陈庆年先生编的《武堂年谱》序言:“该年书亦有公子吉甫观庆年所记”,“孙子孙克源与同乡李普清所撰稿”。 可见,《武唐年谱》的编撰是由时任扬州观察员(道台别称)的吴秉祥下令编撰的。 吴秉祥是吴唐的次子,故称公子; 他被认为是武当家族的孙子。 李普清就是李泽通,明代祁阳王李文忠的后裔。 看到万庆政治腐败,他回到家乡致力于办学。 他是盱眙西南山区,尤其是明光济地区比较有名的文化人。 吴曾只带着李普清从家乡校对了编年史初稿,本应是吴秉祥指派的。 据此推测,吴曾与其叔父吴秉祥关系非同一般。

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解读吴曾植留下的另一篇文章《吴秉祥遗录诗钞》后,验证了吴曾植与吴秉祥的关系十分密切,也粗略地厘清了吴曾植进贡前后的活动。

据同治十三年吴唐重修的《盱眙吴氏族谱》载,吴秉祥是吴唐次子,名吉甫(福),生于道光三十年(1850年)。 )。 同治庚午(1870年)科举进士,江苏候补路人,寓居扬州; 《江苏省通志》志官卷记载,光绪二十年(1894年)二月,他被分配江宁盐巡道。 光绪二十五年(1899年),吴秉祥病逝。 着有《一路诗钞》二卷。 另外,据厦门大学人文学院徐龙波《论晚清南京开埠通关》记载:“南京开埠开埠,第一个标志就是金陵的开通。 1899年5月1日,金陵关正式开通。 “金陵关与当时中国其他海关一样,实行双重管理体制:海关下设海关监管部门和税务部门两个系统。当时的金陵海关‘监管在所,税务部门在所’。首任海关监管者为江南延洵路吴秉祥兼任。 可见,吴秉祥生前不仅监察江宁盐路,而且还是金陵关第一任监察官(关长)。 这里需要说明的是,江南燕洵路是清初江南行省留下的名称。 江南省分为江苏、安徽两省后,江苏的燕洵路以省会江宁命名。 据《江苏省通志》记载,清朝同治、光绪年间,并无江南巡盐道的记载。

地理人物_地理人物传记_地理人物故事/

吴秉祥去世前一年,即清光绪二十四年(1898年),他的诗被编成两卷,名《一路诗钞》。 后来,由于病情恶化,还没来得及付印,他就去世了。 吴秉祥去世后,吴曾请六合王大钧先生重新校订诗稿,并作序。 书名由入翰林院的吴县王以增(字和钦)题写,光绪二十六年(1900年)刻印; 现为天津图书馆藏。

为《一路诗钞》作序的王大均先生,举人出身,曾主持三界智胜书院。 老先生在序中说:“少时,受盱眙吴钦徽先生(吴唐谥“钦徽”)告知,送他入清江书院读书,家刻全集。光绪二十年(1894年),第二公易禄先生被授为从曹部调往外地观察等待下一个金陵。王大均先生年轻时受吴唐派入清江(淮阴)书院学习,并献上王三一斋刻的诗文《》。收录了王大均先生的歌声和诗词,“史记”是唐代文学家皇甫诗和诗人张继的合称,用“史记”来形容他与吴秉祥的关系,可见一斑。不同寻常的是,吴秉祥光绪二十年任江宁盐巡时,召王大均为幕僚,也是理所当然的事。 王大军在序中称“夷鲁先生”。 可见,“一路”并不是小楼院落的名字,而是吴秉祥的自称名字。 《一路石朝》的作者是吴秉祥的石朝。

吴曾只为《仪录食钞》写了跋,后人便将其命名为“吴秉祥仪录食钞”。 据后记记载,吴秉祥是吴曾的叔叔。 光绪三年(1877年),吴秉祥寓居扬州,吴曾前去追随他学做官。 ”光绪丁丑(1877年),侨居扬州的季福公氏叔父,说曾氏只能向他学习,支付住宿费,请老师授课,并出版他的藏经史记,所以他能读懂它们。”

光绪十一年(1885年)崔恪进贡。 二年(1886年),江西以县令分省。 ”。《光绪盱眙县志》记载他“贡四川,后补知县”,自称“贡江西”。因此,吴秉祥初为道士时,据据吴曾所言,他不忍离开自己的叔叔,所以从江西补县令,改为江苏省补充县令,更换官员的跨省调整应该是由于以吴秉祥利用人脉来说,此时吴唐已经去世十年了,但吴家的影响不仅存在,而且还强大。

等了十年,光绪二十二年(1896年),吴曾从后部县令直接升任实际海州知县。 这也是吴曾到达扬州后第一次离开叔叔吴秉祥。 “丙申之际,应请得知海州之事,在公众视野中二十年,如今已左右分离。” 从光绪丁丑(1877年)到光绪丙申(1896年),吴曾只跟随了叔父吴秉祥二十年。

但《江苏省通志稿》记载:“吴曾植,直隶府知州、海州,盱眙共工1898年—1900年(光绪24年—26年)”。 吴曾智序言错误的时间已有两年。 按说,我们不应该怀疑吴曾智的记述,毕竟那是《凤溪拳之海舟》,至少有调用的证据; 但《江苏省通志稿》是官方编撰的,资料齐全,应该比较可靠。 民国时期,江苏省首任巡抚齐耀霖曾说吴曾在金陵只是“需时”,百度解释“需时”的意思是“旧时,官至后”。任命后,他们根据资历填补空缺。” 据此可以理解,吴曾只是光绪二十二年(1896年)被授予知县的人,要排队等到光绪二十四年(1898年)才正式上任。 。

吴曾在《仪录世钞》中只题跋为“光绪二十五年海东十二月”。 事情一办完,我就开始给他整理诗。

2、任县令时,撰写《三国郡县表》

吴曾在《三国郡县》序中说:“候官太忙,不忘完成学业。近年冯刻《三国》明代记载。” ,再次研究欣赏,追回了洪北江先生的《卜志》,对当时的疆域有了粗略的了解,又找了很久的学校,怀疑此事有必要追究吗?详细。” 原来,吴曾只是后部县的一个职务。 闲暇时,偶然得到了明代刻本的《三国志》,便仔细研究起来。 无独有偶,我还得到了洪亮吉所著的《三国界志》。 反复比对后,出现了一个问题:“北江之书,据《州国志》、《晋书》等书,煞费苦心地合并,但所列州、州、县、路,并不详尽。”寻求历史与文学的融合。”

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吴曾根据对《三国志》的研究分析,认为建国之初,英雄竞相建设,历史上并没有任何增删的记载。 三国建立时期,名号不同,战场交替,或行省未定,时而分裂,时而统一。 陈寿写《三国志》时,在魏文帝时说:“郡县县邑,多有变”; 沉约去三国时距离并不算太远,但他写《宋书·周郡志》时,已相信三国设县,并没有写下来。 比较异同,互相验证。 在沉约的时代,编纂地理志书是多么困难,但在今天,更是困难重重。

对于洪亮吉《补三国疆域》中的不足之处,吴曾只指出,要点是:“于威未说司隶、幽、冀、并、梁诸省为合并;三国的建立,多因汉制,诸大郡皆置都尉,洪氏将毗陵、庐陵、合浦三都尉记于武旦,反其余或汉末曾行省的县仍属现州土;或该地区已入东朝,仍隶属魏,或该县的确切位置而那个城镇不相符;或者事件和年份的记录被其他书籍更正,并且受到攻击。”

为了避免洪亮吉重蹈覆辙,武曾只采取了如下方法:“用本朝地图,与先祖证明土地,知道其面积,纠正其错误。委托始于献帝初平,上溯至后汉郡县,三姓世系先后承袭,郡县分合原因,郡县历史,各按时间,列于表中。又有县镇,如地志上的“尉隶”、“尉隶”,“蜀隶”无年可考,但列于三姓称帝之首,有旧郡县。汉代,《晋志》中未见,各家之书亦未考,据《郡国志》记载,在上,下疑。晋,如果郡县没有变,那么三国应该是一样的,就不多加细节了。 若意未尽,需详述,则勿言考附于州表末。”

吴曾于光绪二十一年冬十二月,即1895年底才为《三国县表》作序。由此推测,《三国县表》应为此时即可完成。 秦启曾的《三国郡县表》序也证实了这一点。 秦启增的祖父秦茂林与吴唐的同乡同学同时当选。 考取状元后,吴唐回到江苏为官,秦茂林则在河南为官。 后来,吴唐的大女儿嫁给了秦茂林的儿子秦二喜,生下的儿子就是秦启增。 总的来说,吴秉祥是秦启曾的叔叔,而吴曾只是秦启曾的表弟。 秦启曾在序中说,光绪甲午年间(1894年),他游览金陵,拜访吴曾植; 如前所述,光绪甲午年间(1894年)到金陵任江宁盐旅的正是吴秉祥,吴曾植也应随行。 在金陵。

秦启曾说,此时的吴曾只从事地质学的研究,他看到了洪亮吉先生的《买三国疆土》、陈寿的《三国纪与传》、《裴铸》桌上还有“唐宋以来”。 到了皇朝时期,吴曾才仔细描述异同,找出破绽,绘制出魏、蜀、吴三县县县一览表。 因为当时秦启曾要参军北上,以后就没有时间读了。 两年后,光绪丙申年(1896年),秦启曾从河南卫辉回到金陵。 武曾只握着手中的稿子,对他说道:“三国郡县名单已经定下来,差不多三年了,到了公务上,你就不能再这样了。”始终走自己的路,如果有疑虑并弥补,那么丹徒陈君(青年饰)会不遗余力,不忍心放弃好朋友的好处,以及多年以来的自我满足。辛苦了,一定会出版的,紫溪是给我的。” 根据吴曾所言,我们可以知道,吴曾只是在金陵完成了《三国郡县》的书写,这证明吴曾只是因为吴秉祥被任命为盐路刺史才成名的。 陪他去金陵。 在写作过程中,陈庆年先生提供了帮助。 之所以让秦启曾全权处理排版印刷事宜,恐怕是因为吴曾刚刚接到知县的任命,需要随时做好上任的准备。

秦启曾细读《三国郡县》,心想:“东汉以来,史家创造隐士传说,穷宜黄,扩散吸诺,风吹动,人心摇荡;如何言谈?”论楚蜀,谈古事,不知宋唐,如何谈晋魏;行百里,观其一时,蜀蜀之乐,其丑矣。世事两千载,海国六七环聚虎视,大江失护城河,长城不危。目前,没有什么好处。但游园会遗憾的是不懂外文,不遗余力地深入翻译他国的历史和史记来扩展我们的国家。寺庙被缩短了;但徒弟住在两间中原戒律,活了一千年,只是为了帮助他学习古人。 他屏住呼吸,一整天他都活不了了。 若说他借此书一展风采,拒向北江低头,那是不真实的。 这可能是花园的野心。 全文读完,才敢这么做。”秦启曾的序文署名“丙申(1896)秋九月盱眙秦启曾”,印《三国郡县》时可见。

三、杨守敬对三国郡县表进行修正

《三国郡县一览表》一出版,就引起了杨守敬的注意。 此前,洪亮吉所著《三国疆域补记》,叶贵寿先生评价为“理所当然”。 这可以理解为缺乏证据,是凭想象写的。 杨守敬认为,叶贵寿的评价怎么评价都不为过。 后来谢仲英写了《三国疆域志补记》,杨守敬认为其中还有不少错误。 他看到吴曾植的《三国郡县表》后,称赞该表“历史辉煌”; 同时也指出了遗漏之处并进行了更正; 光绪三十三年(1907年)吴曾植撰,杨守敬更正。 正式署名为《修订三国郡县名录》,刊于《鄂城》(又称《观海堂版》、《鄂城居完版》)。 本书共四册、八册。

杨守敬亲自为合本作序,该本现藏山西省图书馆。 杨守敬写的序言不长,全文转载如下:

《三国志》没有“志”,也没有“表”。 郭朝洪亮吉所编的《疆域志》,多继承《续汉书》,沿袭《晋书》。 它们是推断出来的,但很多都没有反映在本书的《九传》中。 沧州叶贵寿说洪书是洪氏所写,这是理所当然的,并不夸张。 近来武进谢仲英又作了补充注释,其中不少已被更正,但也有不少有误的。 但盱眙、吴曾只写了《三国郡县表》,有辉煌的历史。 最初的三国虽然持续时间不超过几十年,但郡县变化甚多,不设表是无法了解其分、分、并的。 但也有遗漏,或废古志而用方书。 寿精闲暇时,尝试着在眉毛上修正了一下,然后又做了这幅画,现在就是刻的。 观吴考及守敬补,可见洪之地理知识,不能以顾靖帆为背,却嘲讽顾论情,谓之无理。

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从序言中可以看出,杨守敬明确地对洪亮吉、谢仲英、吴曾三人进行了褒贬,而且评价直截了当:洪亮吉的《清代疆域志补》,很大程度上继承自《续汉书》。而下面续《晋志》是一个推论,但本书中的许多编年史、列传并不遵循它。 沧州叶贵寿说洪书理所当然,也不为过。 近日,吴进、谢仲英对其进行了补充注释,其中不少内容已得到更正。 但也存在很多造假现象; 只有盱眙、吴曾的《三国郡县表》有辉煌的历史……但也有一些遗漏,或者有的是根据方书而不是古籍记载。 杨守敬非常看重吴曾仪的《三国郡县表》,因此据此进行了修正。 据湖北人民出版社出版的《三国郡县名录补正》序言,杨守敬的更正共计296篇、2万余字。

4. 齐耀林省长序言

齐耀林出生于吉林省伊通市。 光绪十九年(1893年)中进士,光绪二十一年(1895年)乙未科进士。 第一次到江苏任职是在宣统三年(1911年)六月。 他从直隶使(提法使)升任江苏布政使,但时间很短。 当年十月,改任河南布政使。 第二次到江苏任职是民国三年(1914年)七月。 从吉林民政局调任江苏巡视使。 民国五年(1916年)六月,江苏巡视使改称江苏巡抚,任江苏省首任。 曾任省长; 民国六年(1917年)七月,代理江苏巡抚。 民国九年(1920年)九月,齐耀霖辞去省长职务,退出政坛。

应吴曾植之子吴伟光之请,为《三国郡县补录》作序。 齐耀霖之所以受邀,必定与他担任巡抚或刺史的身份有关。 时间应该是齐耀霖在江苏的第二任期间,即1914年7月至1920年9月。吴秉祥去世近二十年后,他的后人仍能请时任刺史的齐耀霖写序。 ,这说明吴氏家族的影响力依然存在。

按照常理,我们请人为出版写序。 但《三国郡县补正表》在此期间并没有印行。 直到近二十年后的1937年才出版。其中的原因应该不是外人所为。 可以推断出什么。

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仔细读了齐耀霖的序言,虽然整篇文章都在夸赞,但并没有突破杨守敬的评价范围,至少没有摆脱繁文缛节的嫌疑。 全文记录在后面,等待粉丝们研究。

光绪年间,盱眙知府吴克渊需要游览金陵,阅读洪北疆的《三国郡县补录》。 大部分记载都是根据他自己的意见,未能完全符合史料记载。 他专攻历史、文学,将“志”转化为“表”。 如果他不能探寻历史,他就查阅后人的地理记录,以了解该地区并纠正错误。 命《三国郡县表》八卷。 宜都的杨兴武先生看到了,爱上了他。 据说洪氏书有吴进、谢仲英等人补充,更正甚多,但仍沿袭伪造; 吴氏《郡县表》历史辉煌,实际上优于洪、谢氏,但也有一些遗漏。 或弃古志而据方书。 就是矫正眉尖,还原图片,了解其怪癖。 瑶琳接过读来,暗暗赞叹大师的地理知识之渊博,考据之准确,极为难得。 三国正值汉时,矛盾纷争不断。 战争已经打响,文件也已枯萎。 When Chengzuo grew up in the Jin Dynasty, it was difficult to sift through the history of Shu. It was particularly difficult to summarize the topography of the country, and it was impossible to This is how the counties and counties are governed. If you don’t believe it without evidence, the gentleman sighs. Thousands and hundreds of years after Wu’s birth, Wu comprehensively compiled books and corrected Hong and Xie, and contemporary commentators were convinced of his excellence. During this time, he made further corrections and wrote an atlas that was worthy of the Qing Dynasty, and his knowledge of textual research was profound. The place where the ancient heroes of the Three Kingdoms competed. Strategies were everywhere. They were famous for hundreds of generations. The people in the border areas were confused. They were busy with great achievements. Mr. Wu’s old book was original and brilliant. Later, virtuous men came up. This is to seek the past history. It was established by the ancients. Zhimo, the strategy of war, will be contented in emptiness and nothingness. Ning Te’s textual research is cloudy! Mr. Jin’s son, Wei Guang, came out here and begged for a concise preface, so he expressed his intentions in this way. Yitong Qi Yaolin.

5. Influence and evaluation on future generations

“Table of Counties and Prefectures of the Three Kingdoms” has attracted attention from the historical circles since its publication. Especially after it was published together with Yang Shoujing’s corrections, it has become a must-read classic for studying the geography of the Three Kingdoms. In 1936, the Twenty-Five Histories Publication Committee was organized by many scholars to collect, organize and proofread the supplementary works of the official histories of the past dynasties, and edited the “Twenty-Five Histories Supplement”, which was published by Shanghai Kaiming Bookstore in six volumes. 。 Gu Jiegang, the pioneer and founder of modern historical geography, wrote the preface. Some commented that the book’s contribution to historical research has benefited generations of scholars. In the Three Kingdoms part of the book, the eight-volume edition of the Guangxu 33rd (1907) “Three Kingdoms County Table Supplementary Certificate” is included. This is also the first time that “Three Kingdoms Counties and Counties Supplementary Certificate” has a printed version. However, the in-depth research and evaluation of “Three Kingdoms County List” has only started in recent years.

In January 2008, “Chinese Historical Geography Theory Series” published an article by Mr. Kong Xiangjun on the study of the “Table of Counties and Counties of the Three Kingdoms”. Mr. Kong said in the paper: “Hong Liang Ji of the Qing Dynasty wrote the “Record of the Territory of the Three Kingdoms”, which The book is mostly based on “Jin Shu Geography” to infer the situation of the administrative regions of the Three Kingdoms. Not only is the evolution of the administrative regions unclear, but the various counties studied are also extremely chaotic. Later, Xie Zhongying wrote “Supplementary Notes to the Territory Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms” and made a detailed examination of these books. It is intended to correct its errors, and it is not called a comprehensive preparation. The person who compiled a comprehensive textual research on the prefectures and counties of the Three Kingdoms should be recommended to Wu Zengyi. His “Three Kingdoms Prefectures and County Tables with Textual Research” uses tables to describe the evolution of administrative regions. The process is clearly shown, with tables in the front and textual research in the back, and the style is complete and excellent.” In 2012, Mr. Kong, who is already an associate professor at Yangzhou University, wrote the book “Research on the Geography of the Political Regions of the Three Kingdoms”, which In the introduction to the book, this statement is emphasized again. It should be the consensus of the modern historians to say that “The List of Prefectures and Counties of the Three Kingdoms” written by Wu Zengzhi is a comprehensive collection of geographical research of the Three Kingdoms. It is also a full affirmation and high evaluation of Wu Zengzhi.

In January 2009, Hu Yunhong, a doctoral candidate at Nanjing University, published a paper in the “Chinese Historical Geography Theory Collection” titled “Analysis of the Achievements of Qing Confucianism in Complementing the Geography of the Three Kingdoms”. The article believes: “There are only three Qing people who supplemented the geography of the Three Kingdoms, including Hong Liangji, Xie Zhongying, and Wu Zeng. Generally speaking, the scale of Hong’s pioneering work has the biggest shortcomings; Xie’s has made great improvements and progress compared to Hong’s; Wu’s He came from behind and made great achievements, and he created the original ‘geographical table’ style of table in front and in column by time.” Dr. Hu Yunhong also analyzed in detail the characteristics of Wu Zengji’s “Table of Counties and Counties in the Three Kingdoms”:

1. Examine before and after. “Tables as a historical style originated from Sima Qian’s “Historical Records”. However, not many historical books in later generations have tables, and even fewer have geographical tables.” Compared with Wu Zengyi’s “Table of Prefectures and Counties of the Three Kingdoms”, Xie Zhongying’s “Supplement to the Three Kingdoms” The “Regional List of the Three Kingdoms” listed in Supplementary Notes to Frontier Records is essentially “Geography Records”. Wu Zengzhi’s “Table of Counties and Counties of the Three Kingdoms”: “The side rows are slanted upward, with the emperor’s year as the longitude, and the history of counties and counties as the latitude. This geographical table style of time, longitude and place latitude is one of the major features of the “Wu Biao”. ”

2. Pay attention to history. This is the second major feature of Wu Zengzhi’s Table of Counties and Counties in the Three Kingdoms. Due to the particularity of the geography of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Zeng only used the emperor’s year as the unit. Cao Wei has experienced five emperors since Cao Pi became emperor, plus Cao Cao, a total of six stages, so Wei prefectures and counties are listed in six columns. The Shu Han only experienced two dynasties of Liu Bei and his son, plus the previous period when Liu Yan and Liu Zhang ruled Shu, there were three stages in total, so the list of Shu counties only listed three columns. Sun Wu has four emperors from Sun Quan, plus the previous Sun Jian and Sun Ce, a total of five stages, so Wu County is listed in five columns.

3. Regular style. The specific performance is as follows: First, the first column of each table is the source of counties in the Three Kingdoms. Secondly, the first column of counties has been clarified, that is, the origin of the history of counties and counties in the Three Kingdoms has its roots, and the division, abandonment, and merger of provinces and other evolutionary situations of counties in the following columns are “each based on its time and recorded in the table.” Thirdly, all the counties in “Xu Han Zhi”, “Jin Zhi” and other geographical records are not included and cannot be verified. They are only named in the first column and are not recorded in the following columns. Fourth, add notes to the text or attach references to the table. Fifth, if there is a “Xu Han Zhi” in a certain county, but the “Jin Zhi” or other annals state that the Jin Dynasty was restored, the county will be deemed to have abolished the province “at the beginning of the three surnames becoming emperors”. Sixth, if a certain county said that the province was abolished in the early Jin Dynasty, it is also regarded as the establishment of “the beginning of the three surnames proclaiming the emperor”. Seventh, “Xu Han Zhi” and “Jin Zhi” both have it, that is, the counties and counties that have not been changed from the Han Dynasty to the Jin Dynasty are regarded as the same in the Three Kingdoms period, and no annotation is given. If there is any need for detailed explanation, it will be in the state The test certificate is attached after the table.

Fourth, the research is relatively fine-core. Wu Zeng only appended more than 160 textual research items to the “Table of Counties and Counties in the Three Kingdoms”, covering the three levels of state, prefecture, and county. Among them, there were more than 80 textual research items on counties, accounting for half of them. Some of these textual researches are refutations of Hong Liangji’s “Supplementary Records of the Territories of the Three Kingdoms”, and some are supplementary explanations of content that cannot be expressed in the table of notes, and there are many excellent ones among them.

Judging from the four points listed above, Wu Zengyi’s “List of Counties and Counties of the Three Kingdoms” is far superior in style and quality to Hong Liangji’s “Supplementary Notes to the Territorial Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms” and “Supplementary Notes to the Supplementary Notes to the Territorial Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms” by Xie Zhongying. In particular, Wu Zengzhi’s original table-by-table and column-by-time system provided a very good paradigm for future generations to write geographical annals.

After comparing the works of Hong, Xie, and Wu, Dr. Hu concluded that: Hong Liangji’s “Supplementary Notes on the Territories of the Three Kingdoms” is a preliminary work with the most mistakes; , has made great progress compared with “The Territorial Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms”, but there are many mistakes, and it is not superior; only Wu Zengzhi’s “Table of Prefectures and Counties of the Three Kingdoms” has a regular style and detailed research. It is a collection of Qing people who compiled the geographical chronicles of the Three Kingdoms Great achievement, but also has shortcomings.

Kong Xiangjun and Hu Yunhong’s admiration and objective evaluation of the “Three Kingdoms County List” represent the contemporary academic community’s full affirmation of the academic value of the “Three Kingdoms County List” and the full recognition of Mr. Wu Zengyi’s historical status. An objective and fair evaluation from the historical community should be the highest praise and greatest comfort to Mr. Wu Zengyi, a master of history and geography who went global in Xuyi.

参考:

1. “Wu Tang Chronicle” by Chen Qingnian, “Modern History Materials” published by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Press in 1989, No. 75, pp. 105-132.

2. Wu Bingxiang: “Yi Lu Shi Chao”, engraved by Guangxu Gengzi (ie Guangxu 26th year, 1900 AD).

3. Yang Shoujing and Wu Zengyi: “Revision of the List of Counties and Counties in the Three Kingdoms”, printed version in Shanghai Kaiming Bookstore in the 25th year of the Republic of China (1937).